In Poland we love bread. We don't prefer cornflakes but open sandwiches for breakfast. We eat the main meal (soup & meat dish) in the middle of the day, around 2 p.m. And then we eat light supper - some simple sandwiches. As a child - raised somewhere in the countryside around the end of the communist era - I remember bread slice with unsalted butter and coarse sugar to be a delicacy. With better economic conditions (capitalism...? I don't know, I didn't care then) I sampled marvellous strawberry jam. I could eat it every single day, just bread, butter and strawberry jam, again and again. As you taste more and more you may forget how good were these simple ideas with the freshest ingredients of the best quality. Now, when bread rather rarely resembles bread, we (in the cities) learnt to cover its vague taste with host of sophisticated combinations. Maybe that is why I forgot for a while that a good sandwich is not a bad sandwich. I was contemplating that while I was involved in the following event.
Last week we held in Krakow, southern Poland, the conference on 'Culture of New Zealand'. The event was organised by Australia, New Zealand and Oceania Research Assocciation (AZNORA) and its programme included lectures, displaying NZ's movies, photo exhibition and the visit to the ANZAC soldiers' graves at the Krakow Rakowicki Cementary. As a member of the assocciation I was responsible for the NZ's buffet. I have chosen some of the most unusual NZ's recipes, organised preparing the food and serving . At the opening of the exhibition we served Pavlova, shortbreads, green and golden Zespri kiwi and Matua Valley Shingle Peak Sauvignion Blanc.
For breaks between movies I proposed tartines - small open sandwiches which are very convenient food for an unofficial meetings, but also usually very elegant. They are perfect if you are going to treat a larger group of people because this is the food easy to share and guests can easily move around the table (and further), sample their favourite options and talk with the others. Tartines are easy to hold and to eat so you won't be afraid to approach them. Some plates and napkins are very useful. And, of course, some drinks to go with. Besides, tartines can be impressive at a relatively low cost. We usually made them with cold meats, cheese, spreads and vegetables.
The recipes I used were truly New Zealand's ideas. You really have to be down-under born to create it. These are the ideas of that kind you are thinking 'Oh God, it's not going to work' but when you risk to try you see it works pretty well ( I was no exeption).
The most adventurous for the participants of the conference were top three tartines:
I place Ham, cheese and beetroot outside of the competition because people's anxiety was probably caused by catholic Friday fasting, otherwise the case would be surprising as beetroot is one of our national vegetables.
If you would like to try carrot and tuna sandwich, prepare:
1 canned tuna, drained 1-2 Tbsps mayo 1 carrot juice of 1/2 lemon salt, pepper and sugar dill for garnishing baguette
1. Mix drained tuna with mayo and season with salt and pepper. 2. Grate carrot, season with lemon juice and sugar. 3. Cut the baguette in slant slices. 4. Spread tuna evenly, than form carrot into a long ridge and top with a dill twig.
The key to success were the ingredients first: a great fresh baguette, crispy on the outside and fluffy inside and overwhelmingly light. Then canned tuna - the best you can get means the most healthy meal, classic mayo, juicy grated carrot with a touch of lemon, good balance between spices and a fresh herb.
Then really NZ's idea of matching the aboves together.
And equally important: willing and competent hands of my friends.
Carrot & tuna tartines beautifully decorated by my sister-in-law, called 'Puff' (Ptysiek) in family circles.
I am not afraid to say that I am very proud of the final result. Our tartines practically immediately disappeared!! I am particularily happy that we brodened culinary horizons of our compatriots. And we did it far far away as New Zealand is one of the most distant countries for us (22 000 km, on the very opposite side of the globe).
All of those who helped: a big THANK YOU.
And the rest, remember this idea for your next meeting with friends or colleagues. As it comes to planning tartine schedule I would keep in mind and follow these two directions: diversity of the menu and harmony of the ingredients within one single tartine.
Bread is always fundamental. Currently my top simple open sandwich is a slice of some valuable bread, EVOO (extra vergin olive oil) and cottage cheese from the nearest market. I mean, the cheese comes from a village around 100 kms away, towards the mountains Tatras. Even salt is not necessary.
Italian cuisine gave us pizza, pasta, minestrone soup and the most famous dessert – Tiramisu.
Now every good chef must know how to prepare tiramisu, because many restaurants have this dessert in their menu.
Many people love it but they think it’s difficult to prepare. This isn’t true! In fact Tiramisu is not only for the keen cook. A good tiramisu is an extraordinarily tasty dessert that is perfect for almost any situation, from the family get-together through the romantic occasion and official dinner.
I always have mascarpone cheese and ladyfingers in my kitchen in case I need to prepare quickly my version of tiramisu for unexpected guests. I need one small bowl for every guest. First I whip the fresh cream 30% fat content, next I add the mascarpone cheese, sugar, amaretto and gently mix. I put into every bowl a layer of cream and a layer of ladyfingers dipped into strong coffee and repeat the process till the end of ingredients. Finally I put on top a thick layer of cream, sprinkle with cocoa powder and refrigerate for about 20 minutes. Sometimes I add sliced fruits on top.
So this is my quick recipe. Most Italian tiramisu recipes call for raw egg, which is potentially dangerous. Today the danger of salmonella is always present, and we prefer to cook the yolks bain-marie and to substitute whipped cream for the egg whites.
Tiramisu was invented in the 70’s of the 20th century in Treviso in the northern region of Veneto at a stone’s throw from Venice, but became really popular only in the early 90’s. And probably the base for this one was anothe Italian dessert - Zabaglione cream what is a classic sweet treat originally from Venice. Zabaglione cream and the mascarpone cheese were mixed and this is how we received tiramisu.
Basic ingredient of tiramisu is the mascarpone cheese. Mascarpone has very old origins and it appears that it was already produced in the 13th century in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, where took its name from mascherpa which is the local term for a sort of ricotta cheese. Mascarpone is more than a cheese: it is a concentrate of milk cream, with a fat content up to 75%, with a smooth, creamy and sweet texture. It was considered a winter product for its caloric content and especially because it is very delicate and didn’t keep for long in the hot temperatures before the advent of the refrigerator.
The next ingredient is the Savoiardi. These delicate cookies, also known as ladyfingers, were created at the court of the Savoy Dukes around the 1500’s in the northern Italian region of Piemonte, at the boundaries with France. Apparently they were created for a lavish reception organized in honor of a visit of the king of France. Later, thanks to the extraordinary success on this memorable banquet, these cookies were adopted officially by the Royal House of Piemonte. They were renamed Savoiardi from the name of the Savoy dynasty, and they became the most appreciated dessert of the house. Savoiardi are very light because they are prepared with a dough rich of whipped egg white. Very popular for the preparation of layer cakes, they are also served as a complement to custards, ice cream or fruit salad.
So there is perhaps an original recipe, since many regions of Italy have their own recipes. Each is considered an original. Which one is really that first oneis? I don’t know, but every version of tiramisu is marvellous. The cake is characterized by a delicate and intense taste.
4 eggs yolks 100 grams sugar 100 ml Marsala or Amaretto 450 grams Mascarpone cheese 200 grams fresh cream 1 cup espresso coffee 2 teaspoons sugar 40 pieces of ladyfingers cookies 2 tablespoons bitter cocoa powder
1) Prepare the coffee dip. Prepare one cup of strong espresso coffee, dissolve 2 teaspoons sugar in the liquid. Let the coffee cool at room temperature. 2) Prepare the zabaglione filling Beat the egg yolks in a heat proof bowl or in the bowl of a double boiler, until they become fluffy. Beat in the sugar and the Marsala wine or different alcohol. Transfer the bowl over a pan of simmering water, and whisk until the cream thickens. The zabaglione will thicken just before boiling point, when small bubbles appear. With a rubber spatula, mash the mascarpone cheese in a bowl until creamy. Add the zabaglione into the mascarpone cheese, and beat to mix very well. Whip the fresh cream. Fold the whipped cream into the zabaglione– and - cheese cream, until mix gently smooth.
3) Cake Lightly soak ladyfingers in coffee, one at a time. Place them in one layer in a container of about 12 x 8 inches, approximately 2 inches deep, (30 x 20 cm), approximately 4 cm deep). Evenly distribute half of the zabaglione cream over the ladyfingers. Repeat the step with the second layer of ladyfingers, and top with the rest of the cream. Sprinkle with the cocoa powder and refrigerate for about 3 – 4 hours.
Too mild to be a base for a tasty soup... Dully grey without much of cream in a creamy soup... Generally sad vegetable with its undeveloped flowers. Yes, I confess my sin, I used to think that way about cauliflower. Then I gave it a try.
Was I seduced by the soup texture? Gentle flavour of the topping? Surprising poignancy behind the innocent look? Or the tawny bread was my true love and inspiration?
What did I use to change my point of view on cauliflower:
for 2 serves
600 ml chicken stock*
2 tbsps single cream
salt and black pepper
4 bread slices
2 tbsps butter
1 tbsps breadcrumbs 2 tbsps grated cheese
1. Wash and drain cauliflower. Divide into florets, leave aside 6 smaller florets.
2. Boil remaining cauliflower in the stock together with vegetables and meat, add a little of water if needed. When soft, take from the stove. Blend until smooth. Add cream and mix well. Season to taste with salt and freshly ground pepper (try with mixed peppers if you like), MAKE IT PUNCHY.
3. While boiling cauliflower in the stock, boil the remaining florets briefly in salted water. Immediately transfer into the cold water, cool down and drain. Melt butter in the frying pan, brown breadcrumbs, add boiled florets and combine. Up to this point, this is what the classic cuisine calls chou-fleur à la Polonaise. We go one step further. Place florets on a parchment paper, sprinkle with grated cheese and put under a heated grill for a few minutes (depends on the cheese form you prefer).
4. Heat the frying pan, brown breadslices on both sides.
5. Pour the soup into the dish, carefully place three florets on the top and heavily sprinkle with freshly chopped parsley. Serve along with bread.
* Prepare the stock on chicken bones with some meat, preferably on chicken legs, and vegetables, i.e. carrot, onion, celery. Separate meat from the bones and skin, return to the stock, leave vegetables in the stock. This soup must be nutritious!
Worth to remember is that the classic creamy cauliflower soup (with the addition of puréed potatoes) is called crème du Barry and that the method of coating with butter and golden breadcrumbs, called à la Polonaise, applies also to yellow string beans which I found the most delicious. Our (cheesy or not) cauliflower à la Polonaise is not only a decoration, it can be also a good companion to the main course or the dish itself.
Usually I try something new because I knew the story, this time it was the dish that was first. Most of us stop at this point. Quel dommage!
The name for cauliflower derives from Latin caulis meaning cabbage. Via Italian cavolfiore, 'cabbage flower', English name for this vegetable is attested from 1597.
For certain, Brassica oleracea botrytis belongs to the cabbage family and is the youngest child botanically. We do not know exactly how cauliflower developed. Probably it is a distinguished kind of the white broccoli. Cauliflower and broccoli are basically the same species with the difference that the first one has white (generally...) inflorescence meristem and the second has green (not necessarily...) flower buds. It was already known in the antiquity and highly esteemed by the Romans and the Greeks alike. Then was forgotten for centuries, to be revivified by Louis XIV gardener, Jean Baptiste La Quintinie. And last but not least, I have never thought that so white vegetable can have so many minerals (Mg, Ca, K)... After all, my favourite white food is chocolate.
My adventure with sushi had begun in the cookery school. I got a proposal to participate in the culinary contest. The topic of the contest was “Against the rules”, and we had to think up a new dish.
How to think up a new dish when everything was already thought up? But I didn’t give up. I thought about the topic of the contest. I decided to mix two cuisines: Polish and Japanese and I wanted to prepare Polish version of sushi. So, the idea was very good but I didn’t know anything about sushi and I never it ate. Sushi in Poland is expensive, and it is considered as favorite dish of celebrities.
I've looked everywhere for information about sushi. How to prepare it? What are basic ingredients? I started to read.
History of sushi is long and at the beginning it didn’t look the same as today. In the past meat was preserved by means of pickled rice. This way of preparing this dish was very expensive because people didn’t eat the pickled rice and the taste was tart. First sushi tasted only to aristocracy. Only in the eighteenth century people started to eat the pickled rice too. Next the boiled rice replaced pickled rice with vinegar and it was the beginning of the modern version of sushi. This dish was treated as Japanese fast food for the poor workers, but not only. After The Second World War the method of preparing sushi began to spread in North America and it reached Europe too. Now this dish is very popular because it is fashionable, tasty and healthy.
There are several methods of preparing sushi. Some of them are easy, others are difficult. I already knew how to prepare rice and nigiri- sushi, and it was easy. On the other hand norimaki belongs to the more difficult types of sushi. I wanted to find someone who could teach me, but in Cracow sushi masters are very busy and I only watched them in restaurant. I found my teacher - and it was the internet! This is where you can also discover the following things: sushi recipe, Sushi maki, kazari maki-zushi, how to eat sushi,and about tradition and eating ritual of sushi in Japan
So, I learned very quickly because time put pressure on me to make and send my application to the contest. I had only one month to make application and second month to prepare to the contest. It was very little time, and a lot of work to do. Once I know how to prepare Japanese Sushi, I needed to prepare Polish version. It wasn’t easy. First, I had to find new ingredient instead of rice. In Poland “Kasha” resemble rice but there are many types of kasha. I picked two kinds: buckwheat and pearl barley.
So I planned two kind of Polish sushi. I took ingredients from two famous regions in south Poland. First kind was “góralskie” from Podhale. Podhale is the mountain region, where typical food is lamb, oscypek ( smoked cheese made of salted sheep milk) , and sauerkraut. These ingredients compose the first kind of sushi. Second kind was “krakowskie” from Cracow. There are many typical ingredients because Cracow was the capital of Poland and it is very receptive city influenced by many nations. So, cuisine of Cracow has many dishes borrowed from different cultures. People in Cracow love eat simply and much. Very popular are pork, pickled cucumber, sauerkraut, cabbage and spices – especially salt, black pepper and caraway seed. Caraway seed is basic spice in my second type of sushi, because it is added to pork and served with lettuce and pickled cucumber.
My dish won the prize for taste and selection of ingredients. I was very satisfied. I discovered that home-made sushi is cheap and tastes the same as in restaurant. I was preparing and eating it every day before the culinary contest because I wanted to be as good as a sushi master. After the culinary contest I was fed up with sushi, but my sushi adventure has not finished with the end of the contest. Now I often prepare this dish for me, for my husband and for my friends, and I learn a lot of Japanese cuisine.
To sum up: sushi is easy to prepare and cheap and we don’t need many ingredients. We can replace nori with any other food to prepare new style sushi .
Below I present recipe for the “krakowskie” sushi.
• 100 gram pork meat
• Marinate: ½ onion 1 clove of garlic 3 tbsp. vinegar 1 bay leaf 1 tbsp. caraway seed
• oil • 100 g. pearl barley kasha, optional use Couscous • 1 egg • 2 medium pickled cucumber, optional use fresh cucumber • butter lettuce • 2 sheets of nori • Wasabi • Soya sauce
1.Prepare marinate one day earlier. Cut pork into thin chops about 0,5 inch . Put in a bowl, add caraway seed, black pepper, bay leaf. Cut onion and garlic to slices and add to meat. Boil 300 ml water, when it is cold add vinegar and pour water on meat.
2.Next day, take out meat with marinate. Fry meat on hot oil a few minutes on either side. Add a little water and salt and stew meat 10 minutes. Cool down.
3.Boil pearl barley kasha in 200 ml water with salt. Kasha boils the same like rice.
4.When water is completely absorbed and kasha is boiled but still very hot, add an egg and quickly mix very well. Wait until it cools down.
5.Cut meat and cucumber to stripes.
6.On top of the Makisu, place a sheet of Nori toward you.
7.Put some kasha on top of Nori. Spread the Kasha from left to right. Leave about an inch of space on the bottom and the top of Nori.
8.Gently spread a little of wasabi on the kasha, then place a leaf of butter lettuce, meat and cucumber.
9.Slowly lift the Makisu in order to roll it while keeping Nori steady. Make sure both left and right sides are even. Roll it up forward. Cut the sushi into 6 pieces with a very sharp knife.
Nothing, NOTHING compares to the feeling you have when you take out of the oven your own first loaf of bread. You participate in something very special then. This wonderful smell washes away the shadows of that long time you spent trying to follow your first bread recipe. The smell in incomparable to anything else you know. With my first bread I realised why bread is the symbol of Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist. Because it is so good. And the good news is that you can repeat this phenomenon. Hand-made loaf, fresh from the oven, is always a feast.
And after all this is not so difficult. Just follow simple instructions written by experience itself. Look for the good advice of the people who ate the bread from many ovens…
Many loaves have been baked and eaten since I made my first loaf of bread. My revelation was The Bread Book by Linda Collister and Anthony Blake read three years ago. Ever since I keep discovering this very passionate and reasonable book. Certainly I can recommend it to everyone because everyone can make bread with this book if only he or she can read… All of you who has never made a simple cake, start believe.
I attempted three times to produce working sourdough. First two times were really discouraging but now… Keep thinking about the results to come, not about the failures. The whole matter is worth trying. It is not an easy matter but only for the first time ( O.K. – even for the third, so what?!). I wish to share my latest discovery which I concerned my best bread so far. It reminds me of the long way I passed since my first loaf, keeps me awake for the future results, and makes me hungry for more...
Poilâne... Douce France...
The more you know about the French gastronomy, the more you admit it is the world’s best cuisine. Is there anyone who hasn’t heard about the Poilâne bread? Bread icon yet, convincing and true, with the ‘taste that really registers wheat’. Saying that this is a sourdough bread, made of stoneground flour and baked in the wood-fired brick ovens will be just the specification. Real Poilâne bread is something much more. This is the authentic sophistication of the baking art, carefully chosen ingredients, baking metod improved over years and live human impact on every stage. This bread is created with care and love.
This is what you can achieve when you do something, when you do anything in fact, with passion, with strong belief, when you work hard and – when you have some talent. Lionel Poilâne certainly was an artist, gifted and hard-working. And –very knowledgeable and conscious of the matter for he was right that historia vitae magistra. Great bread is the result of the centuries’ experience, and the courage of looking forward as well. So don’t be surprised that his bread is so sincere.
Great bread embodies what is the staple of our life: good, work, care about others, sharing ourselves with others. That’s the Poilâne.
Let’s share this passion! A sourough bread is a kind of mistery, true, but the one to be solved. This is chemistry, true, but try to do it without using your heart, no way. Some say that sourdough is like an infant and you need to be very careful about it. Don’t panic. Your child will grow and will not need so much attention, and you also will learn how to react properly. If you know the nature of the wild yeast and get confident things become natural.
General notes on wild yeast
1. Take your time. Do not rush. That’s the pleasure, not a race.
2. Know the nature. Wild yeast are unicellar organisms classified in the kingdom of Fungi. Saccharomyces can be found in water and air, on plants, fruits and grains. They need humidity and warmth to grow. In the good dough they multiply together with lactic acid bacteria giving the bread the final texture, taste and smell. Sweet environment and slight acidity are stimulating for their growth, so some recipes suggest to add sugar or alcohol to the starter. Salt and fat slow down the process, so we add these at the stage of making the dough.
3. Multiplying yeasts feed on sugars naturally contained in the flour. This is the limited source so that is why you need to supply your yeasts. Avoid the situation when your starter dies of hunger. Use the common sense, sourdough kept in the fridge doesn’t work much so it doesn’t need feeding up to a month. However if you are refreshing your sourdough you need to add some fresh water and flour. It will grow quickly in warm conditions. When all is fermented you need to make a dough, otherwise the sourdough will eat itself and die.
4. Yeasts breathe and produce gases (carbon dioxide and ethanol) as well. This is why you cannot cover working sourdough tightly. Wet cloth is the best to cover it because natural yeasts from the air can penetrate into the sourdough. It also prevents drying out the surface of the sourdough which means cutting off the oxygen for the inner parts and death of the microorganisms. Sourdough kept in the fridge doesn’t need neither additional stimulation of the organisms from the air nor more of the oxygen. You may notice however that it is still breathing as produced ethanol have no way out and accumulate in the container – what can be easily felt on opening the container. Two much of alcohol will kill our yeasts. Again you need to refresh and use it from time to time.
5. Temperature is crucial. Why sometimes our sourdough develops slightly different types of organisms, let’s say moulds? Yeah, right. Two low temperature activates other organisms than wild yeast, two high will kill them. The best temperature for yeasts to grow is between 27 and 35 Celsius degrees. The best temperature to store it is around 6 to 10 Celsius degrees.
Now when you know it, all should go well.
First steps with your sourdough
Sourdough can be made of different kinds of flour, however rye flour seems to be the most suitable. Rye sourdough can be used not only for the rye breads but also for other ones. Read carefully and for the first time exactly follow the recipe. When you know the pattern and the nature you can be more adventurous.
50 g rye flour 50 g water
Mix and leave in warm place for about three days, covered with wet cloth. Use 1-litre capacity container. Glass one let you watching yeasts better. You can stir it with a spoon once a day. Warm temperature means between 27 and 35 Celsius degrees, and no draughts. Cloth has to be wet all the time. Don’t worry about the colour, texture and smell. Unless you notice mould. If you discover bubbles, congratulation, that’s the sourdough conception. If there is no bubbling, but also no signs of spoiling, go to the nex point. There is still hope. It may start working on the fourth day. If it was once looking good but on adding more flour and water is not, just wait. It will work. For the loaf you need more or less three fifth of sourdough and two fifth of flour. Keep feeding the sourdough until you reach the required amount and watch your sourdough becoming stronger.
4th day – add 50 g rye flour and 50 g water, mix, ALL THE TIME KEEP IN WARM PLACE 5th day – repeat 6th day - repeat 7th day-repeat
Every step from this part doesn't need to take necessarily exact 24 hours. I keep looking at my sourdough, if it is nice bubbled within the whole surface (as shown at the photograph below), I add the next part of flour and water. If not, I wait a little bit longer until it reaches this level of fermentation. I learnt by trial and error that usually temperature is the problem. KEEP IT IN THE WARM PLACE IF YOU WANT IT WORK.
On the 8th day you should have nice, fermented sourdough. If not, leave it 1-2 days more. The sourdough is ready when the surface in bubbled, grey in colour, bubbles burst leaving holes in the sourdough, there is some loose water at the bottom and the whole structure is very delicate, unstable and can be easily destroyed with the touch. This sourdough is ready to ferment the dough for our bread.
Put 50 grams of this sourdough to the plastic container with a lid and keep it for the next time you wish to bake. This can be stored in a fridge up to a month. I try to bake every week or two. With the first fresh sourdough bread may not be as spectacular as the later ones, when the sourdough gets stronger. You will notice the difference with every next use. Don’t neglect all the rules you already know about keeping your sourdough in good form.
Wheat rye bread on rye sourdough
Ingredients for one big loaf or two small:
450 g rye sourdough 100 g rye flour 515 g wheat flour 1 tablespoon of salt 1 teaspoon of sugar 200 g warm water
1. Mix in all the ingredients in a bowl and take out on the flat surface.
2. Knead until the dough will be elastic and have no bumps. It will be quite soft and even a little bit running.
This is typical for the rye breads. They can’t form the gluten structure, they are humid and heavy. They cannot hold its structure so they have to rise in forms or baskets.
In mixed bread like this one, by kneading you develop the gluten structure in the dough what will give the loaf a lighter structure and a special flavour. This is also the most pleasurable activity in the whole bread making process. I love the touch of bread, this skin-like soft texture. This is what God must have felt when he was creating man.
3. Form the dough into a ball (or two if you make 2 small loaves), coat it with the wheat flour and place in forms for rising. Leave in a warm place (yes, 27-35 Celsius degrees) for about two hours until the loaf is doubled in size.
The bottom of the loaf should be faced upwards if you are placing the loaf in the form only for rising and you are not going to bake in it! For rising use a baking tin covered with oil or a basket covered with the clean dry cloth heavily dusted with the wheat flour.
Proofing time depends on the temperature and the power of the sourdough. With young sourdough the process will take more time. Do not hurry. Wait as long as it is necessary until the loaf doubles its size.
The loaf is generally ready to bake if your finger leaves a hole in the dough. If the hole disappears quickly, the fermentation still takes place. Wait. With a gentle touch you can also estimate if the loaf still is going to keep its shape. Put it in the oven if you feel that it reaches its maximum extent while it is able to maintain the shape.
4. Make a superficial cut around the top of the round loaf and immediately put to the oven.
Loaf proofing in a basket: turn out quickly and place on an oiled tray. You can make a fast, superficial cut. Immediately put to the oven.
The cloth must be well dusted, otherwise the dough will stick to it and the whole structure will be destroyed while removing it from the basket. You need to be fast and delicate at the same time. If the dough sticks somewhere, try to release it carefully.
This one was proofed in a big pot covered with dusted cloth and removed on an oiled surface to the tart form to support its sides.
5. Put to the hot oven at 210 C°. This will catch the shape of the bread. After ten minutes you can reduce to 200 C°. Bake for about 45 minutes (small loaves) to one hour (the big one).
6. Knock on the bottom of the bread. The baked one will greet you with the hollow sound. Leave on the rack to cool down. Breathe in the unique, unforgettable aroma. Cut when it gets cold. Enjoy up to a week.
Refreshing sourdough for the next bread
Refreshing sourdough will take about 12 hours in normal conditions, the process can be fasten in the appropriate temperature. I take out of the fridge the remaining 50 g of sourdough in the evening, mix it and leave overnight.
50 g rye sourdough 150 g rye flour 300 g warm water
These proportions come from the book Bread Matters. The State of Modern Bread and a Definitive Guide to Baking Your Own by Andrew Whitley, which I highly esteem and recommend.
Mix all the ingredients and leave in a warm place, covered with the wet cloth. Use when it gets fermented, putting aside 50 g in the fridge for the next loaf. You can follow my wheat rye bread recipe with this sourdough or try something new. Possibilities are countless.